Cultivation Practice Of Wheat Crop In India
By : Tractorbird News Published on : 14-Mar-2023
Wheat is a widely cultivated as cereal grain that is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus Triticum. the most widely grown is common wheat (T. aestivum). The archaeological record suggests that wheat was first cultivated in the regions of the fertile crescent around 9600 BCE. Botanically, the wheat kernel is a type of fruit called a caryopsis.
Scientific Description of Wheat
- Scientific Name – Triticum sp.
- Family - Poaceae/Gramineae
- Origin place - South Western Asia
- Inflorescence - Spike
Economic Importance Of Wheat
- In India, wheat cultivation second most important staple food crop after rice.
- Wheat grain flour is used in form of chapati, puri, bread, cake, sweetmeats etc.
- Wheat grain contains 11.2% protein which is more than other cereals.
- Wheat provides the characteristic substance “Gluten” which is very essential for bakers.
- Straw – it is also used in paper industries and for temporary huts and roofs.
- The bran, husk, and other portion of grain and straw are available to feed for livestock.
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Species Of Wheat
There are 18 sp. Of wheat introduced by scientists.
But only 3 species are cultivated in our country.
1. Triticum aestivum (common bread wheat)
- Its hexaploids, 2n =42 (Important SP. Mostly grow in India)
- Gluten – 11%
- Occupy about 87% of wheat area. It is good for chapati making and bakery products.
2. Triticum durum (durum / maczroni wheat)
- Tetraploids, 2n= 28
- Gluten - 12%
- Used for suji, pasta and vermicelli preparation.
- This occupy about 12% of wheat area in India.
3. Triticum diccocum ( Emmer wheat)
- Tetraploid 2n,= 28
- Gluten – 13 %
- Occupies only 1% area .
- Suitable for preparation south Indian dish “Uppumav”.
Area And Production
- Area: UP > MP > PUNJAB
- Production: UP > PUNJAB > HARYANA
- Productivity : Punjab (45q./ha) > Haryana
The highest productivity of wheat in Punjab due to nearly 100% area of wheat under irrigation condition and higher doses of fertilizer consumption.
Climate Requirement For Wheat
- It is a long day plant with wider adaptability.
- Prefer area with cool and moist weather during growing period followed by dry and warm weather during maturity.
- Optimum temperature rang for ideal growth of wheat is 20-25 degree Celsius.
Temperature Requirements At Different Stages
- Germination = 20 -25 C
- Vegetative growth = 16 -22 C
- Grain filling = 23 –25 C
- Annual rainfall required is 750 -1000mm.
- Relative Humidity for crop growth 50 -60%.
Soil Condition for Wheat Cultivation
Wheat is grown in a variety of soil in India. Well drained loam and clay loams are good for wheat.
- PH = 5.0 -7.5
- Texture = loam and clay loamy
- Crumby soil is good for wheat sowing .
- Bulk Density - 1.33 -1.5 g/cm3
- Soil depth – 60-70 cm
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Field Preparation For Wheat cultivation
- During land preparation, one ploughing should be done with MB plough and 2-3 harrowing followed by cultivator ploughing.
- When preparing the field, apply farm yard manure according to crop requirement.
- Land should be leveled with land leveler.
- Moisture in the land is also very important for germination.
- The wheat crop requires well pulverized but compact seedbed for good and uniform germination.
- The seed bed should not be cloudy or crusty.
- Generally, manure and fertilizer should be used after soil testing in soil.
- According to timely sowing crop, 120 kg nitrogen, 60 kg phosphorus and 40 kg potash per hectare.
- For good growth 6tons FYM is necessary for one hectare.
- Half the amount of nitrogen, the full amount of phosphorus and potash and the full amount of FYM should be mixing in the field while preparing the field or at the last ploughing
- Dividing the remaining amount of nitrogen into two parts and use it after first irrigation 20 -25 DAS and second 40-45 DAS.
- Sulphur and zinc also increase wheat production.
Varieties of wheat
- Norin 10 cultivar has created a new chapter in the history of wheat breeding.
- Lerma rojo 64 –A, SONALIKA
- Kalyan Sona, SONAR -64
- LOK -1 suitable for late sowing, C 306
- New varieties - DBW 303, DBW 222, HD 3086, HD 2967 , HD 3159, WH711, JK 7254.
- For irrigated condition = 80-100kg/ha
- Rainfed condition = 100-125kg/ha
- For late sowing = 125-150kg/ha
- For irrigated = row to row 22.5 cm and plant to plant 8-10 cm.
- For rainfed = row to row 25-30cm and plant to plant 5-6 cm.
Depth of sowing - 4 to 5 cm.
What are the Methods of wheat cultivation?
- Behind plough
- Line sowing
- Furrow irrigated raised bed system
Time of sowing of wheat
- First fortnight of November is the best time of wheat sowing.
- Rain fed wheat is sown in second fortnight of October.
Seed treatment with carbendazim and thiram reduce soil born disease.
- Irrigated - 444444.4 plants/ha
- Rainfed - 4lakh plants/ha
Water management in wheat crop
- Generally the wheat crop requires 5-6 irrigation.
- CRI (Crown root initiation) it comes 21st days after sowing. It is most critical stage of irrigation.
- Tillering stage: up to 40-45 DAS
- Late Jointing stage: up to 60-65 DAS
- Flowering stage (booting): up to 80-85 DAS
- Milking stage: up to 100-105 DAS
- Dough stage: up to 115-120 DAS
Weed Management In Wheat Crop
- For control of Bathua , Motha, Kasni spray 2, 4-D 500-800 g/ha as post-emergence 25to30 DAS.
- For control of Phalaris minor apply sulfosulfuron 25g/ha.
- Clodinofopropagyl and fenoxaprop is also effective aginest wild oat and all grasses.
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Pest And Insect Control In Wheat Crop
- Avoid late sowing and excess use of nitrogenous fertilizers.
- Foliar spray of imidacloprid 17SL@ 20g/ha.
2. Army worm
- Application of quinalphos 25EC @ 400g/ha or carbaryl 50 wp @ 2.5 kg /ha.
- Treat the seed @4ml of chlorpyriphos20EC
Disease management in wheat crop
- Black rust (Puccinia graminis tritici )
- Brown rust (Puccinia recondita f sp. tritici)
- Yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis)
- Adjust time of sowing.
- Grow resistant varieties like kalyan sona, sonalika, WH 157 , WH 284.
- Balance application of nitrogenous fertilizer .
- Seed dressing with Plantavax @ 0.1 % followed by two spray with the same chemical.
- Spay zineb @ 0.25 % or Mancozeb @ 0.25 % after 15 days interval.
2. Loose Smut (Ustilago nuda tritici)
- Remove the disease plants immediately with precaution.
- Hot water treatment soak the seed in cold water for 4 hours and immerse the seed in hot water at a temperature of 132 F or 52 F for about 10 minutes dry the seeds in shade.
3. karnal bunt (Neovossia indica)
- growing of disease resistant variety PBW502
- One spray of Propiconazole (Tilt 25EC ) @2ML /lit of water at ear head stage.
Harvesting of Wheat
- Judging of Physiological Maturity
- Grain moisture content = 15-20 %
- Yellowing of the Spikelets 80-90 % or the plant turns golden yellow and becomes brittle.
- Grains becomes hard and the straw becomes dry and brittle .
Method of Harvesting
- The harvesting can be done with the help of serrated sickle manually.
- Harvesting can also be done with combine harvester to avoid losses in grain yield due to shattering and lodging.
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Threshing And Winnowing
- Done by power operated threshers
- By threading the head of the wheat with the bullock cart .
- By beating them with the help of bamboo sticks.
- By running the tractor over heads.
- Winnowing can also be manual with the help of dropping the grains from a certain height so as to remove the impurities from the grains lot due to motion of the wind current.
- Also done with power operated winnowers.
Yield of wheat crop
- Rainfed wheat – 15 -20 q/ha
- Irrigated wheat – 35-40q/ha